Formed by ancient volcanos and the erosion by wind and water, the unusual geology of Cappadocia is quite fascinating. “Fairy chimneys,” as they are called, are composed of basalt rock hard enough to resist erosion while the ash layers beneath have worn away more rapidly. There are many valleys, each with unique characteristics, and throughout the area, one finds homes that have been carved into the softer stone sections. This is also an area with important early Christian sites. Vast, complex, underground cities and the Goreme Open Air Museum are the highlights.